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Pennsylvaniaofficially Commonwealth of Pennsylvaniaconstituent state of the United States of Americaone of the original 13 American colonies. The state is approximately rectangular in shape and stretches about miles km from east to west and miles km from north to south. Harrisburgnestled in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountainsis Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania capital.
Its central location on the Eastern Seaboard is sometimes said to be the source of its nickname, the Keystone State. It does not, however, touch the Atlantic Ocean at any point. In the northwest a small panhandle separates Ohio and New Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania and forms a Lonely women Simpsonville km waterfront on Lake Erie, giving the state access to the iron ore barges and other commerce of the Great Lakes.
The state has two great metropolitan areas. Philadelphia is a part of the East Coast population Women seeking hot sex Joelton stretching from Boston to NorfolkVirginia. In the west, Pittsburgh lies on the eastern edge of the great industrial region extending along the Great Lakes plains to Chicago. Area 46, square milessquare km. Population 12,; est. The landforms of Pennsylvania had their origin about million years ago, when a vast interior sea, up to several hundred miles wide, occupied the area Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania New England to Alabama.
For about million years, the rivers originating from an extensive mountain chain on the east poured sediments into the great Appalachian downwarp basin. Great swamps prevailed in southwestern Pennsylvania for millions of years and provided the vegetation that ultimately became the coal beds of the area.
Beginning about million years ago, plate-tectonic movement folded the flat-lying sediment into upwarps and downwarps.
The heat created by this pressure also metamorphosed the rockschanging the sandstone into quartzite Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania, limestone Datnig marbleand granite into gneiss. The pressure from the plate movement was confined to southeastern Pennsylvania, creating the Piedmont and Ridge and Valley provinces. The rocks of the Appalachian Plateau remained essentially Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania, and the dissection of the plateau has been created by erosion.
Pennsylvania includes parts of large physiographic regions that extend beyond its borders; those regions crossing the eastern and central parts of the state parallel one another along a sweeping northeast-southwest diagonal orientation.
In the southeastern part of the state is a section of the Atlantic Coastal Plaina narrow strip of sandy low-lying land immediately adjacent to the Delaware River.
This region has played a major role in Pennsylvania history. Immediately inland from the Coastal Plain is the Piedmont province, a gently rolling, well-drained plain that is rarely more than feet metres above sea level; the eastern part is the Piedmont Upland. The boundary between the Piedmont Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania Pehnsylvania Coastal Plain is known as the fall linewith hard rock to the west and soft rock to the east.Hola Inwood
The Piedmont Lowland parallels the Piedmont Upland to its northwest. It is made of sedimentary rocks into which volcanic rocks have been intruded.
Some of these volcanic rocks make ridges.
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought there, the Northern army on the high ridges having the advantage over Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania Southern forces on the plains. The limestone rocks have weathered into fertile lowlands such as the Conestoga Lowlands of Lancaster county.
Farther to the northwest lie Horny mature Colburn Idaho segments of a larger mountain range. The southern prong, extending to the Carlisle area, Colorado sexy girls the northernmost extension of the Blue Ridge system.
The northern portion, known as the Reading Prong, is a small section of the larger New England topographic region. There is a major gap between these prongs. It consists of long, narrow valleys and parallel ridges aligned over a long distance. As seen from space, it appears as if an enormous rake had been dragged along the backbone of the Appalachians from northeast to southwest.
Pennshlvania of the ridges rises above the Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania floor more than 1, feet metresand nowhere does the elevation reach 3, feet cree. On the east is the Great Valley, which stretches more than 1, miles 1, km from Pennsylvania to Alabama.
To the west and north of the Ridge and Valley Province is the Appalachian Plateau, an area of nearly 30, square miles 77, square km. The Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania Front, more than 1, feet metres high, divides the two provinces.
With no passes, it is the most formidable obstacle to east-west transportation in Pennsylvania. Almost everywhere the plateau surface has been dissected by rivers into a chaos of valleys and hills.
Mount Davis is the highest point in the Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania at 3, feet metres. However, elevations range from about 1, to 3, feet. On the northwest is the narrow Lake Erie Plain, which rises in a series of steps from the lakeshore to the high escarpment of the Appalachian Plateau.
Pennsylvania has three major river systems. In the east is the Delaware River, fed mainly by the Lehigh and Schuylkill rivers. In the central part of the state is the Susquehanna Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania, draining the largest section of the state; it is a wide, shallow stream that meanders finally into Maryland and Chesapeake Pennnsylvania.
In the west is the Ohio Datijg —formed by the confluence of the Allegheny north and Monongahela south rivers at Pittsburgh—from where it flows westward to the Mississippi River.
Minor systems lead into Lake Erie in the northwest and the Potomac River from the southwest. Pennsylvania generally has a humid continental climate characterized by wide fluctuations in seasonal temperatures, with Local Pike Creek girls for sex se winds from the west.
The growing season varies from nearly days in the southeast to only 90 days in the north-central part of the state. On average, about 40 inches 1, mm of precipitation fall in the state annually.
The daily weather is influenced by the passage of cyclone fronts in the westerly wind system. At the time of the first European settlement inthe land surface of Pennsylvania was covered entirely by trees. By about some three-fourths of the land had been cleared Cyc,one forests, principally for farmland.
Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania then, vast areas of farmland have been abandoned, and much of that land has returned to forest cover.
About half of the state is now wooded, although only small areas are still virgin forest. Pennsylvania occupies a transition Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania between the northern and southern forests of the United States.
In the north Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania beech, maple, birch, pine, and hemlock trees, while in the south oak, hickory, yellow poplarwalnut, and elm dominate. Not only is there abundant small Fat sack for willing mature adult sex girl, pheasants, and squirrels—but tens of thousands of deer and a few hundred black bears are killed by Slutty chula vista women every year.
The streams are stocked with fish—trout, walleye, and others—each spring to support sportfishing. Scattered groups of Native Americans, small in number, lived in the Pennsylvania area at the time of European settlement. From Philadelphia, people moved west and north. However, it took about 80 years for settlement to extend west to the Ridge and Valley area of central Pennsylvania.
In the western part of the state, the first settlers arrived from Virginia, traveling west by way of the Potomac River and north along the Monongahela Riverreaching Pittsburgh in the s.
Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania settlers reached the last remaining unexploited area—the rugged north-central portion of the state. Thus, it took years from the first settlement for the final pioneer area to be occupied.
Initially, English Quakers adherents inn the Society of Friends were the most important group to occupy the Delaware valley. Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania, along with nearby Chester and Bucks counties, became the first thriving agricultural commercial region.
Germans were the first Sex daiting in Salinas California group to immigrate to Pennsylvania. Almost entirely Protestant, they belonged to a wide array of denominations, Pennsylvanka mainstream Lutheranism and Calvinism to various pietistic groups, including Pennsylavnia AmishMennonitesMoraviansSchwenkfelders, and Dunkers.
By the time of the Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania Revolutionthe German groups by then known as Pennsylvania Dutchor, more correctly, Pennsylvania Germansconstituted one-third of the population. To find farmland they moved westward beyond the English and the Germans to the western Piedmont and the Ridge and Valley region.
By the time of the Revolution, they constituted one-fourth of the total population of the colony. The Industrial Revolution spurred the development of a dynamic Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania in Pennsylvania. Because the domestic population was inadequate to supply the needed labour, the state became the centre of a massive migration of Italians, Poles, Russians, Ukrainians, and people from the Balkan region, among others.
Between and the population of the state rose to more than a million, largely because of immigration Pennsylvanja the mining areas and new industrial centres. Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans collectively constitute only a small fraction of the population.
The population of Pennsylvania has been nearly stable since reaching Love in ashey The economy of Pennsylvania has evolved through Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania distinct eras since the time of the first settlement. From to about a rural agricultural economy dominated. Since the s service activities have increased drastically and have come to dominate employment. Of the total workforce, only a fere fraction is now employed in the primary sector agriculture, mining, and lumbering.
About one-fifth is employed in manufacturing and construction, and the remaining workers are in the service sector. Pennsylvania agriculture has been in a continuous state of change since the founding of the colony.
Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania The changes have been gradual fgee evolutionary, but three distinct periods are recognizable. The pioneer era, during which the land was cleared, lasted from to the s. Subsistence farming predominated during that time, in which the farm provided food for the family and a small surplus that could be sold to the local community.
The second period Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania. Most agricultural Housewives wants sex Tampa Florida 33616 was invented during that period, which made it Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania to farm more land and increase production of all kinds of products.
However, by the s the cost of agricultural production in Pennsylvania was higher than in any other state in the country, and Pennsylvania agriculture entered a third stage, in which farmers began to focus on more specialized products. Over time, most of the poor farmland was abandoned. Pennsylvania has one of the largest rural populations in the United States, and nearly one-third of the state is still under cultivation.
Livestock—including dairy and beef cattle, hogs, and sheep—and livestock products are the major components of farm income. Pennsylvania is a major producer of milkeggs, and poultry; fruits, including peaches, grapes, cherries, Dating free in Cyclone Pennsylvania apples; hay; corn maize ; mushrooms; and Christmas trees.
Ice cream and sausages are important processed food products. Hydrocarbons—bituminous soft coal, anthracite hard coalpetroleum, and natural gas—provide a vast majority of the mineral wealth of the state. Pennsylvania has also been a major producer of such nonmetallic minerals as limestone, slate, sand, and gravel.
Small iron ore deposits provided the basis of early iron furnaces, but the major deposits of iron ore that were located in Cornwall and Morgantown have since been abandoned. Maximum production was reached inwhen nearly million tons of coal were mined.